The 2018 fall professional development conference will be held at the KU Field Station’s Armitage Education Center from 9:00 AM to 5 PM on Saturday, September 22nd. There is a $15 on-site registration fee and an optional year-long KABT membership for an additional $15. Yellow Sub sandwiches will be provided for lunch. Please view the attached flier for the schedule and contact email@example.com with any additional questions.
I recently had an exchange with some area teachers about how we approach the curriculum of a high school anatomy and physiology course. My course (and entire practice) is always undergoing change and revision. That said, I’ve created an outline for my course that might be helpful for others who are considering an attempt to escape the vocabulary grind of a legacy A&P classroom.
The students and I work the entire semester at developing their competency at telling the ‘story’ of a single anatomical theme instead of grinding through a linear sequence of discrete curricular units and a series of independent point-driven tasks. While not strictly PBL as it is commonly described, students are accountable for developing and presenting a cohesive, thematic schema for what they know as a result of our work together.
So here is an outline of what we’ll be attempting this year. If you’re walking a similar path in your classroom, be sure to share out your questions, suggestions, and comments.
Fall Semester – Thematic Development of Curricular Standards
Theme: Environmental Interactions – Your Brain is a Survival Organ
Your heart pumps blood. Your lungs breathe air. Your skeleton provides structure, support and protection. Your muscles produce movement. But what about your brain?
Your brain is a survival organ that regulates your internal physiology within relatively narrow limits and guides your environmental interactions to maximize homeostasis (health). Biologically, humans are habit-driven, emotional beings who have the capacity for cognition (thinking, self-awareness). Our brain’s function is to continually respond to the dynamic environment in which we live enabling us to avoid threats, seek opportunities, and utilize cognition so that we may assert greater levels of control within that environment. We are a bundle of habits, emotions and thoughts, and we can act in response to all three.
Thematic Development: Lower Order and Higher Order Interrelationships
The lower order and higher order parts of the brain do not operate independently of one another. The brain stem, diencephalon, basal nuclei, limbic system, and cerebral cortex have established numerous neural and hormonal interconnections through which they influence one another in such a way that they are able to warn of potential threats in the environment and reward successful interactions with the environment. The amygdala (warning) and the septal region (reward) play a significant role in learning and knowing, the amygdala at the beginning of the process (learning) and the septal nuclei and nucleus accumbens at the back end (knowing).
Thematic Development: Learning and Knowing are NOT the Same Thing
The functional interrelationships between higher order regions of the brain are such that learning and knowing take place as related, but distinctly different, processes. An individual’s cognitive belief system and self-concept impact every aspect of the learning and knowing processes. Mindset, in particular, functions as a ‘system override’ that acts to habitually accept or reject new learning in ways that can either enhance the receptivity to new information, or dramatically close off access to the learning and knowing pathways within the brain.
Thematic Development: Motivation
Humans don’t have to be motivated to learn, learning is the motivation. Cognition is a powerful survival adaptation for interacting with one’s environment. Our brains contain an internal frame of reference, so that success in thought leads to heightened levels of control which we ultimately experience as competency and gratification. The brain has evolved to learn, and so it should be no surprise that cognition leading to greater control is ‘hardwired’ into the brain’s internal reward system. All motivation can be explained in terms of environmental interactions that lead to the feeling of well-being and competency.
Thematic Development: Joints and Movement – Bones, Muscles and Nerves
Moveable joints have fundamental structural and functional characteristics in common with each other along with skeletal and soft tissue adaptations to provide for the unique stability and range of motion possible at each joint. Bones, bone markings, bone tissues, articular surfaces, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and skeletal muscles work in combination to provide humans with the ability to respond in rich and varied ways to their environment.
The biochemical and mechanical pathways through which sensory input enters the central nervous system is integrated into the brain’s existing schema for responding in a manner that maximizes homeostasis. A motor impulse originating in the brain results in the contraction of a motor unit that is part of a muscle that acts with other muscles in groups at a specific joint.
By focusing on the names, origins, insertions and actions of the muscles that act on the knee to move the leg and that act on the shoulder to move the arm it is possible to develop a schema for knowing how any number of muscles (3, 30 or 300) act at joints without having to depend on the serious limitations that come with attempts to rote memorize new information, especially when that information is conceptually challenging and there is a lot of it.
Spring Semester – Thematic Development of Curricular Standards
Theme: Regulation and Maintenance – Organ Systems at Work
The cells throughout your body are not capable of carrying out all the functions necessary for survival by themselves. They cannot obtain nutrients, rid themselves of wastes, exchange essential gases, protect themselves from toxicity and temperature variations, or other necessary tasks. Blood and interstitial fluid serve as the exchange medium between systemic cells and the various organ systems of your body through which those cells maintain homeostasis. The human body functions physiologically through the operation of pressure, temperature and concentration gradients, and those gradients result in blood flow, respiration, digestion and absorption, liver function, and renal processing.
Thematic Development: Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of electrical events, mechanical events, pressure changes and volume changes that occur during one heartbeat. Muscle contractions, pressure gradients and valve operation initiate and maintain productive blood flow through the heart and throughout the pulmonary and systemic circulation.
Thematic Development: Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
Oxygenated air entering your respiratory system and deoxygenated blood returning to your heart must reach each other at the respiratory membrane where concentration gradients facilitate the exchange of O2 and CO2. Blood that is oxygenated at the respiratory membrane must reach the systemic microcirculation and interstitial fluid throughout your body where concentration gradients facilitate the exchange of O2 and CO2.
Thematic Development: Cardiovascular and Digestive Systems
Ingested food that enters the GI tract and oxygenated blood that enters the abdominal viscera must reach each other at the GI mucosa where the products of digestion enter the systemic microcirculation through the operation of concentration gradients and active transport. Deoxygenated, nutrient-rich, xenobiotic-rich blood must pass through the hepatic portal system so that it can be processed in the microcirculation of the liver and then returned to the systemic circulation.
Thematic Development: Blood as a Transport Medium
Blood is composed of various formed elements and plasma, through which blood gases and solutes are transported throughout the body.
Thematic Development: Systemic Circulation and the Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system is closely associated with the cardiovascular system, since it returns fluids that have leaked from the vascular capillary beds back into the blood. It consists of three parts: the lymphatic vessels that parallel the blood vessels; the fluid in those vessels, called lymph; and lymph nodes that cleanse the lymph as it passes through the lymphatic vessels prior to re-entering the vascular system as plasma.
Thematic Development: Cardiovascular and Urinary Systems
A nephron is comprised of both vascular and tubular structures that are involved in the renal processing of whole blood through the operation of filtration, concentration gradients and active transport. The various components of blood (formed elements, plasma, desirable plasma solutes, and undesirable plasma solutes) enter the kidney, undergo processing by the nephrons, and are either returned to the systemic circulation or are removed from the body as urine.
Thematic Development of Curricular Standards – Semester Grade Determination
Academic success is commonly framed as something that results from ongoing task completion, the purpose of which is to accumulate points toward reaching an arbitrary percentage benchmark that represents a particular grade. Learning is thought to arise intuitively in direct proportion to the number of points acquired, and so it is often a secondary consideration at best. Our approach to Anatomy and Physiology will be structured so that students are empowered to concentrate exclusively on learning and knowing, instead of chasing points, and each student’s grade will represent the level of competency he or she has developed through that effort.
Students establish a grade in Anatomy based on how they are progressing in their response to one question, the one question that drives EVERY class period, “What do you know?” There are NO assignments, NO homework grades, NO quizzes, NO high-stakes projects or tests, NO points, and NO percentages. Students are NEVER penalized for mistakes they make as they struggle deliberately at ‘coming to know’, and we DON’T have to resort to curving test scores, awarding extra credit points for routine tasks, or rounding percentages to make up for any perceived ‘hits’ against a student’s grade.
There is nothing permanent about a grade in Anatomy. Since the sole focus of our time in class is ‘students making progress in what they know’ relative to a single semester-long theme, as opposed to accumulating points by completing an ongoing series of discrete tasks, we have no need for multiple gradebook entries and arbitrary mathematical averages to determine a grade. There will never be more than one item in the gradebook. That item will be titled as the theme for the semester, and it will be subject to revision at any time throughout the semester.
Each student’s Anatomy grade is simply a notification of how far that student has progressed, or regressed, in knowing at the time the grade is updated. Students NEVER have to carry the weight of a bad grade as part of their quarter or semester average (since we do not calculate averages), nor do they have to struggle unproductively through a punitive makeup or retake process to amend an undesirable grade. We are always working forward to better develop our curricular theme and each student’s understanding of that theme by starting wherever the student is ‘at’ at any given time and helping that student grow his or her understanding to the highest level possible.
The ONLY grade that counts toward GPA, and is reported on transcripts, is the semester grade. And for Anatomy, that semester grade represents the progress a student has made in developing competency at accessing anatomy and physiology content in meaningful ways so that it can be understood and known as a durable network of long-term memories. That semester grade represents what the student demonstrates that he or she knows about our thematic focus due to his or her purposeful, ongoing effort at ‘practicing knowing’. In class. Every day. Throughout the semester.
Grading practices that serve to enforce compliance with teacher directives by awarding points for various forms of task completion are not compatible with an instructional approach that is geared solely toward engaging students in a persistent effort to develop what they know about a broad curricular theme. Students who have been conditioned to care more about points and percentages than about learning will only commit to the struggle of knowing if they are confident that their progress in knowing will result in the grade they expect. Therefore, the points-driven, percentage-based grading scale that is common in many classes has been replaced in our Anatomy class with the growth-oriented competency rubric that can be found below. The rubric has been intentionally developed to ensure that when students invest in deliberately knowing more each day, the grade will take care of itself.
Demonstrates a thorough command of the curricular theme. Has developed a factually-accurate, meaningful thematic schema…can tell a rich, fully-developed ‘story’ that ties relevant details to big ideas to convey depth of understanding.
Symbol = ACM ParentVue/StudentVue Numerical Equivalent = 5 Grade = A
Conveys a coherent understanding of the curricular theme. Has developed a thematic schema that is reasonably accurate and makes sense…but a truly comprehensive understanding that demonstrates mastery of the details and how they contribute to the big ideas is not yet obvious.
Symbol = EST ParentVue/StudentVue Numerical Equivalent = 4 Grade = B
Presents the essential features of the curricular theme. Beginning to combine thematic concepts into a working schema…knows some, but not all, of the parts of the ‘story’, and is still working to describe how all those parts fit together in a meaningful way.
Symbol = FND ParentVue/StudentVue Numerical Equivalent = 3 Grade = C
Recognizes the basic elements of the curricular theme. Can articulate a few of the concepts that are necessary to a growing schema…but there are significant gaps in what is known relative to what has been developed in class.
Symbol = PRG ParentVue/StudentVue Numerical Equivalent = 2 Grade = D
Unfamiliar with the basic elements of an anatomical schema related to the curricular theme that has been developed in class.
Symbol = BEG ParentVue/StudentVue Numerical Equivalent = 1 Grade = F
Has not provided recent evidence of competency.
Symbol = INC ParentVue/StudentVue Numerical Equivalent = 0 Grade = F
Imagine for me, if you would, this scenario: you are trying to make a diagram for a lab report (or assessment or poster or whatever) but you can’t find the right figure. So you draw something that resembles what you want, or you use an image you found online that is similar to what you want, but then you spend almost as much time identifying and discussing the weaknesses of the model as you do working with the model itself.
[ESPN Documentary Narrator Voice] What if I told you there was a free way to make high-quality, detailed models with your students?
My wife’s uncle shared BioRender with me this week, and I knew I needed to share this ASAP. Watch this intro video you’ll see when you sign up for a free account, and try to act cool… I’ll wait.
DID YOU FREAK OUT A LITTLE BIT?! I did. (OK, maybe more than a little bit.) There is a lot to explore with this, but here are some highlights for me. Not only are there 1000s of icons you can add to your figure, but you can control the color scheme for many of them and add labels to make your models even more robust.
It has some built-in support to pull models from the Protein Databank. When you have the EXACT protein you want to use, you can control how your protein is visualized and rotate the protein so you show the exact part of interest. After Andrew Taylor’s Fall Conference presentation on 3D-printed models, I went looking for the proteins associated with the pharmaceutical product Gleevec.
I encourage you to go check this out. Visit https://biorender.io/ and create an account. Once you start creating, share your best figures with us here or on social media. I may be speaking for myself here, but I can’t wait to start using and making these models with my students!
edited to fix a capitalization mistake 8/13
One of the old standby activities of biology class is collecting, labeling, and classifying insects. I remember this was one of the true highlights of my life. When I was a young child I began collecting insects. The night before our collection was due several cute giggling girls in my ninth grade class showed up at my house asking if they could have some of my collection. The next week when we had our collections graded mine stood out among other less ambitious attempts which looked more like they had been collected with a shoe than a net. It was a rare moment where my nerdy habits were celebrated.
Rightly, insect collections have fallen out of favor in modern biology education. Bug collecting and classifying is hard to justify as a 21st century skill.
Still, I think we shouldn’t forget about the value collections can have. Catching the bugs is a great way to compare and analyze biological forms.I think that there are two significant ways collections can be used in our evolution unit.
First, collections allow students to consider the obscure insight of variation in a population.
consider how Alfred Russell Wallace arrived at his insight about natural selection. David Quammen explains in his book Song of the Dodo: Biogeography in the Age of Extinction he explains,
“ Wallace had reason to notice such variation more clearly than most other naturalists. As a commercial collector, he collected redundantly- taking not just one specimen each of this parrot ant that butterfly but sometimes a dozen or more individuals of a single species. Lovely dead creatures were his stock-in-trade, literally, and he grabbed what he could for the market. But after grabbing, he preserved, inspected, and packed his creatures with a keen eye, so he saw infraspecific variation laid out before him in a way that other field biologists ( including even the best of the wealthy ones, like Darwin) generally didn’t. it was a trail of clues that Wallace would follow to great profit.” (pg 65)
This gives students a vivid example of variation in a population. Most of the general public hasn’t seen the slight differences between individuals of the same species. Analyzing these collections can help them see the ingredient of variation that is necessary for of natural selection.
Shells can show this property as well, plus students can manipulate shells without breaking them.
Secondly, collections allow students to very vividly see homologous traits and fossil evidence.
Last year I got out several of my collections and I had students move from station to station examining evidence for evolution. At each station I had either a fossil, a collection showing homologous traits/variation, a map for biogeography, a specimen with a vestigial trait/atavism, or a diagram showing comparative DNA.
The students then had to apply what they knew about each evidence for evolution to a novel case. This proved to be a really fun experience for me because it forced me to apply what I was teaching in class to the world around me.
If that sounds like a whole lot to chew start with this; collect several pine cones from different species of firs, spruces, and pine. Challenge students with questions about why different species have similar structures.
Have your students examine these biological forms and identifying them helps you to move them from defining terms to analyzing and applying their knowledge.
A *New* Biology Adventure for Your Kansas Students: PBL – Water Quantity and Water Quality
The NSF Kansas EPSCoR project titled, Microbiomes of Aquatic, Plant, and Soil Systems across Kansas (MAPS), a collaboration of researchers from KU, K-State, WSU, Fort Hays State, and Haskell Indian Nations University, hosted 12 Kansas biology teachers in a 2018 Summer Institute from June 4-8, 2018. Broken into three teams — Aquatics, Terrestrial, and ArcGIS, our goal was to work with researchers to investigate how the microbiomes of Kansas are critical to understanding several key issues for our state, including agricultural sustainability, water quality, greenhouse gases, plant productivity, and soil fertility. In addition to using ArcGIS to map native and restoration prairie species distribution under the direction of Drs. Helen Alexander, Peggy Schultz, and Jim Bever, we all did some aquatics field work led by the Deputy Director of the Kansas Biological Survey, Dr. Jerry deNoyelles, and Assistant Research Professor, Dr. Ted Harris, who specializes in Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We learned how to use lake surveying equipment to test water quality parameters and sampled macroinverts in thermally-stratified Cross Reservoir. We also seined Mud Creek, where Drew Ising apparently stumbled into a parallel universe when I botched this pano:
The end result was this *NEW* PBL on Water Quantity and Quality, which I hope benefits your Biology students as much as I know it will benefit mine:
About Me and my PBL Life
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