TBT: Protein Synthesis Models (In My Classroom)

EDITOR’S NOTE: THIS POST ORIGINALLY APPEARED IN FEBRUARY 2015 AS THE 3RD INSTALLMENT OF THE “IN MY CLASSROOM” SERIES. KABT MEMBER IN EXILE, CAMDEN BURTON, SHARED THIS ACTIVITY WHERE HE HAD HIS STUDENTS COMPARE AND CRITIQUE MODELS. ENJOY THIS KABT CLASSIC!

Thanks to a little idea from Brad I thought I would try something with my AP Biology students this week that I saw him try with his BIO 100 students at KU earlier.

We’re currently marching our way through the mind-bending terror that is protein synthesis. So we’ve gone over the whole process a bit but to make sure we were not getting lost in the details I gave them this:

Blank central dogma 1Blank central dogma 2

Two different models of the same process. Nothing earth-shatteringly innovative but how I framed it and worked with it was unique to me. I didn’t just say it was a worksheet to complete. I framed it as 2 different models of the same process. If they wanted to use the picture in their book that was ok because the diagram in their Campbell book also looked different. What I was surprised with was how much students struggle translating [pun] knowledge across models. Students struggled with labeling processes versus structures, labeling the same structure that was differently drawn in two models, and especially when one model added or removed details (like introns and exons).

The other cool part was that afterwards when students shared their answers on the board, they had lengthy discussion about what was “right”. For example, two students argued whether the 4th answer from the top was “pre-mRNA” or “mRNA” and explained why they thought that. After looking to me I shared that by their explanations both could be right. That’s what I think was cool, students argued different answers where with the proper explanations, either could be right. So because of that, I would avoid giving an “word bank”.

Also, at the very end I created a list on the board titled “limitations” and I had them share what was limiting about these diagrams. Some thoughts were “no nucleotides were shown entering RNA polymerase”, “no other cell components were shown”, “the ribosome on top only had room for one tRNA”, “no mRNA cap or tail were shown”, and many more.

I found this exercise useful because I struggle giving students modeling opportunities (especially non-physical ones) and this was a simple way for students to get practice comparing/contrasting models while also discussing the usefulness and limitations of them.

Alright, for the 4th installment I nominate el presidente himself, Noah Busch.

Sternberg Museum Summer Science Camps

Fort Hays State University’s Sternberg Museum is providing another year of high-quality field experiences for students. They are offering courses for elementary, middle, and high school students, and even have international trips available.

The full catalog is available here. If you need more information, or are interested in one of the available scholarships, contact education director David Levering using the information below.

Greetings from the Sternberg Museum of Natural History! We are excited to offer our 2017 Summer Science Camps and Programs designed to immerse students in the wonders of Earth and life science!
The Sternberg Museum education and science staff presents experience-driven lessons and activities that get students directly involved in the process of science. We emphasize building knowledge, skills and the mental tools to deal with information and questions in a scientific manner.
Outdoor exploration is at the heart of our science camps and programs. Getting students outside interacting with nature, each other and instructors helps to anchor our lessons with powerful firsthand experiences. We look forward to sharing the wonder of science and exploration with you this summer!
Sincerely,
David Levering
Education Director
DALevering@FHSU.edu
785-639-5249

A 3D Gene Expression Lesson on Epigenetics

Disclaimer: As far as standards go, I really like the Next Generation Science Standards. Particularly important to me is the emphasis it places on learning not just the content (disciplinary core ideas), but how scientists work/think (science practices) and connections between ideas (cross-cutting concepts). Over the last 3-4 years, I have been giving my favorite activities and labs an NGSS facelift to modify them to better fit this framework. I am going to share with you a lesson that I feel address all 3 dimensions of the NGSS.

 

Is your lesson “3D”? Use the NGSS Lesson Screener tool to find out.  LINK

Many students really enjoy their genetics units, but one of the more difficult things to understand is gene expression. Several years ago, I would have presented my students with the “central dogma”, given some notes over transcription and translation, then worked through a few scaffolds to get them to understand how amino acid chains are produced. After reading Survival of the Sickest in 2008, I started to mention that epigenetics was a thing, though I didn’t have my students investigate it with any depth.

With the introduction of the Next Generation Science Standards, an emphasis has been placed on understanding the implications of the processes in the classic dogma without getting overly concerned about what specific enzymes might be doing at a given time. This has freed up more time to explore the regulation of gene expression, including epigenetics. There are a number of amazing resources out there (like this… and this… and this…), but here is how I cover gene regulation with my 9th grade biology students:

This format is something I have adapted (with few changes) from an NGSS training put on by Matt Krehbiel and Stephen Moulding, which I attended thanks to KSDE. I like this because it is flexible, provides students with the entire trajectory of the lesson from the beginning, and can double as a lesson plan. Can you guess the reasoning behind the color-coded words? That, too, is explicit, though it is in most cases more for my own benefit. RED words are commands for the students. It tells them how they should address the problem and how I will assess their work. The GREEN words relate to cross-cutting concepts (in this case, systems/system models and patterns), while the BLUE(ish) words are science practices.

Depending on how much time you have available, this could take 2 to 4 50-minute class periods (or 1-2 block periods if you’re lucky enough to roll with that schedule).  I like to use more time for this because I have designed discussion and collaboration into the process, but the “Gather Information” and (obviously) “Individual Performance” sections could be done by students on their own and wouldn’t require a classroom. Devoting a little extra class time will also allow for you to conduct ad hoc informal formative assessments (read over a kid’s shoulder and ask them questions) as you move around your room.

Part 1: Gathering Information

Have you listened to the RadioLab episode, “Inheritance”? If not, you should do that. I find that RL is a good way to indoctrinate your students into the world of science podcasts. And this episode is one of my favorites. 

I really like reading with my students, asking them questions that get them thinking deeper as they go, so I usually devote an entire class period to reading an article on epigenetics. I break my class into three groups with each group reading a different article, and students will (for the most part) self-select based on the length or difficulty of the reading.  I use readings pulled from Discover Magazine, Nature Education, Nat Geo’s Phenomena blogs. Students sit around large tables and talk and write and sketch as they read. There is structure and agency, direction and freedom, and I love those days. But if you’re in a hurry (in my opinion, one of the worst reasons to do something), I guess you could assign the reading as homework.

via GIPHY

Part 2: Thinking Deeper

To really understand something, you need to really dig into it. This section is meant to be collaborative. If I have some really outstanding students grouped together, I will encourage them to divide the work in this section between them, then teach their group members in a scaffold.  I wouldn’t normally do this with an extension/research-based activity because I want to make sure each student has a chance to interact with each aspect of the activity. If I can’t trust all the group members to produce the same quality of work, I won’t recommend the divide-and-conquer approach.

When dealing with my AP/College Biology students, I would word a question like #5 differently. With the general biology kids, I recognize most of them will not end up in a biology-centric career. They will, however, be citizens of the world, and voters. So I try to incorporate questions where they reflect on their emotional response to the content. I know it is popular to think of scientists as unfeeling, opinion-less automatons, but that is disingenuous. I live with a scientist, trust me. I use experiences like this to really emphasize the importance of evidence-based, empirical thinking and using data to drive decision-making.

Part 3: Individual Performance

How do you know if your students “get it”?  A lot of the time, when using a science notebook or interactive journal, it might be several days before you go back and read everything your students wrote (and maybe, sometimes, you still don’t read everything). What I like to do is tell students they will have 15 minutes to produce the best possible answer after I give them 5 minutes to discuss with their classmates how they will address the last couple of items for this assignment. Once the writing starts, I am walking the room, reading over shoulders, and looking for patterns. Are there any things that I think they should have gotten, but most people are missing? Are we particularly strong in certain areas? Are students adding models to their answers in support? This lets me know if I need to reteach something or if we can move on.

I also look for answers that are good, but might be missing one bit of information to take it over-the-top. It is a good rule of thumb to think that, if one student is making a mistake, there are other students making the same error. I will then (not so) randomly ask students to read exactly what they have written down. By using an answer that is mostly correct, it takes some of the stigma away from making a mistake. We can then have a discussion with the class to see if we can identify where the answer can be changed or added to, and praise the parts of the answer that were done well. Students with sub-par responses are encouraged to add to their answers, and we learn more together.

Conclusion 

If you are still with me, what do you think? What does this activity do well? Where can I get better? What are my students missing? If you would like to modify/use this activity, you can find a GoogleSlides version here. Send me an email (andrewising[at]gmail) or tweet (@ItsIsing) and let me know how it went!

In DNA, C pairs with G and X pairs with Y?

Big news! I recently read an article in the Washington Post that wasn’t about our current political leadership, and I highly recommend it to all Biology teachers. An international team of researchers has published their findings in a paper titled, “A semisynthetic organism engineered for the stable expansion of the genetic alphabet” in journal PNAS. (If you like to also read the primary literature on these newspaper and magazine science stories, it is unfortunately behind a paywall.)

via NIH Flickr Acct.

I am no Eric Kessler, resident KABT expert on synthetic biology (synbio), but I was amazed by what I read. It is incredibly fascinating to consider the scientific breakthroughs that have been made during my teaching career, not to mention my lifetime. I was lucky enough to have Mr. Kessler as my AP Biology teacher when I was a high school student, and we barely touched on the topic of biotechnology in the halcyon days of the early 2000’s. Even in my undergraduate education, little time was spent on biotechnology and genetics labs. Fast forward about a decade and scientists are able to build synthetic nucleotides that can be copied into E. coli and conserved for more than 60 generations. This leads me to an obvious question: what will be possible when my current crop of freshpersons are leaving college?

Environmental biochemists have long hinted about the possibility of a microorganism capable of safely remediating oil spills and other industrial accidents. Could this lead to what amounts to biomachines capable of conducting targeted medical therapies in a patient? I have a sister with cystic fibrosis, and would like to imagine a time when an SSO (semisynthetic organism) is capable of producing functional copies of CFTR1, effectively curing her of the disease that once promised to take her life.

What was your reaction? What application would you like to see for this technology?

LINKS
Washington Post: “Biologists breed life form with lab-made DNA. Don’t call it ‘Jurassic Park’,” by Ben Guarino
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America: “A semisynthetic organism engineered for the stable expansion of the genetic alphabet,” by Y. Zhang and B. Lamb, et al.

KABT 2017 Winter Board Meeting

What: KABT Winter Board Meeting (RESCHEDULED)
When: Saturday, February 18th. 9AM-3PM (or earlier should we move through the agenda)
Where: Baker Wetlands Discovery Center; 1365 N 1250 Rd, Lawrence, KS 66046 (MAP)
Who: All KABT members are welcome to attend.

We will be having a potluck lunch. If you are coming and still need to “sign up” for something, Jesi Rhodes created a spreadsheet for us.

Tentative Agenda: GoogleDoc

If you have any questions or would like to have something added to our agenda, please don’t hesitate to send an email to askkabt@gmail.com.

Hope to see everyone there!

Drew Ising

ICYMI: Secretary of Education Confirmation Hearing

Below is video from the recent confirmation hearing for Secretary of Education candidate Betsy DeVos, courtesy of C-SPAN. You can find this video on their website, along with a transcript of the 3-hour proceeding.  I would recommend that any stakeholder in our education system (basically everyone) take the time to watch this hearing and develop their own reason- and evidence-based views on the answers provided.

If you have any comments regarding the candidacy of Ms. DeVos (be they positive, negative or otherwise), I encourage you to share those with your congressional representatives in the House and Senate. The members of the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions can be found here. Our own Pat Roberts, is a member of this committee, he can be contacted from this webpage. You can also call Senator Roberts’ offices to share your comments with him using the phone numbers below.
Washington, D.C. Office: (202) 224-4774
Dodge City, KS Office: (620) 227-2244
Topeka, KS Office: (785) 295-2745
Overland Park, KS Office: (913) 451-9343
Wichita, KS Office: (316) 263-0416

If you have any questions or would like to start a dialogue on this (or another) matter, drop us a comment in the KABT Facebook group or send us an email at askkabt@gmail.com.

TOP 5 LEAST Favorite Student Questions

It happens to everyone… you’re having a perfectly normal day until someone asks you a question that sabotages your day in an instant. With thanks to the KABT Facebook Group, here are our top 5 questions you wish you could never hear again from your students.

#5: “Do we have to know this?” / “When will I ever use this?”

via GIPHY

The sarcasm in a teacher’s response to this question has been shown to have a strong statistical correlation to the amount of caffeine consumed that morning.

#4: “How can I earn extra credit?”

via GIPHY

Particularly relevant now, with final exams right around this corner, this question comes, invariably, from a student who has not turned in any work since Halloween. However, there is some inherent irony when that student asks to do additional work.

#3: “Can’t we just take notes?”

via GIPHY

It is like something from a horror novel… The authentic experience you meticulously planned for hours, and likely spent a significant amount of your own money to produce, has been in front of the students for nearly 6 minutes when you see a hand shoot up in the back…

#2: “I missed [x] days, what did we do?” / I’m going to be gone, will I miss anything important?”

via GIPHY

This was suggested independently by four different KABT members, so we imagine the struggle is pretty universal. The frustration caused by this question increases in an exponential relationship with the amount of time you spend updating your class website or learning management system. And like “Can I go to the bathroom?”, no one ever asks this question at the appropriate time… (which is never)

#1: “How much is this worth?” / “Is this for a grade?”

via GIPHY

Attitudes and questions like this have given rise to grading schemes which place an undue emphasis on the quantity of work turned in, and have taken away from the noble practice of learning. Thanks for ruining it for everybody, Worst Question Ever.

We hope you have enjoyed “Top 5”, a monthly post on the BioBlog. If you have suggestions for a future “Top 5” email askkabt@gmail.com or tweet @ksbioteachers.

Model Building and Building on Models

I make my students build and use models on a daily basis in my classrooms. I think that I have a better than average grasp on the Next Generation Science Standards, their practice and three-dimensional lesson planning. But I have apparently never thought to throw a bunch of vocabulary words at my students and give them the time to really struggle to connect them into a cohesive model with their groups.  And at the end of a session on Cognitive Models, presented by AP/IB Biology teachers Lee Ferguson and Ryan Reardon, that is exactly what we did.

nabtmodel

To start, the instructions were sparse: Create connections and uncover relationships between pancreatic β-cells and photosynthesis. My group was made up of six other AP Biology teachers from 4 states, none of us with any idea where to start. There was some discussion about the significance of the color of each card, which it ends up wasn’t important… there just wasn’t time to sort them before the session.  We eventually found the word “Metabolism”, which we all agreed was the one thing that all the cards shared. From there, we tried to make shorter stacks of cards that were related. For example, “Hyperglycemia”, “Blood sugar rises”, and “insulin”.

Once we had all the cards grouped, we tried to place them into a pseudo-concept map. In our classrooms, I would have probably done this on a big whiteboard so we could draw arrows and write connecting terms, but my group guess that the Sheridan didn’t want us writing on their table cloths. 🙂  As we went, we had to stop and rearrange our map several times and each time we edited the map, members of the group were justifying why some cards had to stay or move.  It was a really great conversation and I learned some things about feedback loops that I don’t think I had ever known.

At the end of the process, we were encouraged to go look at what the other tables had put together and reflect on our map. To my surprise, none of the other groups had anything resembling our model. Talking to some of the other groups, I don’t think that anyone had a model that I think failed to achieve the original objective. It was really a powerful reminder that students, no matter the amount of information they may possess, each approach a problem from a unique viewpoint. And when you have people put together information, even people that all know “the right answer”, there are many ways to arrive at that conclusion.

Needless to say, next week when we start preparing for our next test in my 9th grade Biology class, my students are getting a stack of 3×5 cards tossed on to their tables. I can’t wait to hear their conversations and see what they create!

This post is part of a series of posts from KABT members reflecting on some of the most important things they’ll bring back into their classrooms from the NABT 2016 Professional Development Conference.

NABT 2016 Notes

20161105_085707Last week, biology teachers from around the country (and Canada) descended upon Denver, CO for the annual NABT Professional Development Conference. KABT members and Kansas teachers were particularly well represented with 17 Kansas educators (yes, we have claimed Camden and Vivian) in attendance! A hearty thanks to Camden Hanzlick-Burton for providing us with a GoogleDoc to aggregate our notes into one collective document.

You can access this document using THIS LINK. If there are any questions about the document, feel free to contact me.

 


TBT: Miniposters

Editor’s Note: So far this semester, the most popular single post on the BioBlog is this September 2013 peer-review piece from our blogfather, Brad Williamson. Also this is a reposting of a reposting. Blogception!  Enjoy this, and if you use mini-posters in your classes, share your experience with us in the comments!

This is a reposting of a post that first appeared on the NABT BioBlog:

Miniposter, Jai Hoyer

Background and Rationale:

Almost 20 years ago, I was fortunate to be invited to my first Bioquest Workshop at Beloit College. Maura Flannery covered the Bioquest experience in several her columns in the American Biology Teacher. These workshops challenge and inspire you as you work with a number of like-minded biology educators working on the edge of new developments. What really caught me off guard was the intensity of the learning experience. Before the end of the first full day, each working group had to produce a scientific poster presentation. This was my first, personal experience with building a poster so I’m glad that I don’t really have a record of it. I talked to John Jungck about the poster requirements—he told me that the students in his labs prepare a poster for each laboratory–rather than a lab-write up and they have to defend/present them in poster sessions. I immediately saw that a poster would help me evaluate my student’s lab experience while provide a bit of authenticity to my students doing science. That fall I had my students do a poster session that was displayed in the science hall. It was a big success with one exception. For my high school class, the experience was a bit too intense and too time consuming. It turned out that we could only work in one big poster session that year. One of the little bits of clarity of thought that comes from teaching for decades instead of years is the realization that students need to practice, practice, practice—doing anything just once is not enough. I thought about abandoning the poster session since it was too time consuming. However, I witness great learning by all levels of students with this tool. I didn’t want to abandon it. With this thought rolling around in my mind, I was primed as I visited one of my wife, Carol’s, teacher workshops. She’s a science teacher, too. In this workshop she was presenting an idea to help elementary teachers develop science fair project—a mini-science fair poster. This idea involved the used of a trifolded piece of 11″ x 17″ paper. The teachers were inputting their “required” science fair heading with post-it notes. Revision was a breeze. The teachers learned the importance of brevity with completion. They added graphs and images by gluing their graph to a small post-it. It was all so tidy, so elegant, so inviting, I probably stared a little long, struck dumb by the simplicity of the mini-poster. Once I came to my senses I realized that the mini-poster was my answer–a way to incorporate authentic peer review, formative assessment in my science classes. My high school classes could be like John’s college classes.

Making Miniposters

Over the years, mini-posters have evolved into the following. We take two, colored (for aesthetics file folders, trim off the tabs and glue them so that one panel from each overlap—leaving a trifold, mini-poster framework. Each student gets one of these. For these posters we go ahead and permanently glue on miniposter-headers that include prompts to remind the students what should be included in each section. Later, they can design their own posters from scratch. The image at the top of the page and the ones following will give you an idea. By using post-it notes the posters can easily be revised and we also reuse the poster template several times over the year. Don’t feel that you have to follow this design–feel free to innovate.

Implementing Mini-posters:

Defending the Miniposter–Presentation

Defending the miniposter:
For the first mini-poster experience, I give my students as much as a class period to work up a poster after completing an original research investigation. (We do quite a few of these early in the school year with others periodically throughout the rest of the year). Sometimes poster work is by groups and sometimes by individuals. Once the posters are ready, the class has a mini-poster session. The class is divided up in half or in groups. Half the class (or a fraction) then stays with their posters to defend and explain them while the other half play the part of the critical audience. To guide the critic, I provide each “evaluator” with a one page RUBRIC and require them to score the poster after a short presentation. I restrict the “presentation” to about 5 minutes and make sure that there is an audience for every poster. We then rotate around the room through a couple of rounds before switching places. The poster presenters become the critical audience and the evaluators become presenters. We then repeat the process. By the end of the hour every poster has been peer-reviewed and scored with a rubric–formative assessment at its best. The atmosphere is really jumping with the students generally enjoying presenting their original work to their peers. The feedback is impressive. At this point I step in and point out that I will be evaluating their posters for a grade (summative assessment) but they have until tomorrow (or next week) to revise their posters based on peer review—oh, and I’ll use the same rubric. The process works very well for me and my students and my guess is that it will for yours as well. You’ll naturally have to tweak it a bit—please do. If you find mini-posters work for you, come back here and leave a comment.

The images are from our UKanTeach Research Methods course first assignment—a weekend research investigation. Thanks to the Research Methods course for the images.

Another Sample Miniposter: Artificial Selction of Trichomes in Fastplants

Here’s a file that illustrates what a Sample-miniposter might look like constructed in MS Word.

Links to websites for advice on making scientific posters:

http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/cpurrin1/posteradvice.htm

http://www.ncsu.edu/project/posters/NewSite/index.html

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/posterpres.html

http://www.tc.umn.edu/~schne006/tutorials/poster_design/